• 3 October 2022

Vitamins & Minerals Daily Dosage Calculator

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Tables of Daily Intake of Vitamins & Supplements

Τι είναι τα ιχνοστοιχεία ιχνοστοιχεια πινακας Μεταλλα και ιχνοστοιχεια βικιπαιδεια Μεταλλα και ιχνοστοιχεια pdf Μεταλλα και ιχνοστοιχεια ποια ειναι ιχνοστοιχεια τροφες μεταλλα τροφες Ιχνοστοιχεία βικιπαίδεια

In most vitamins, minerals, and trace elements, side effects are related to high dosages from supplements. You can save Daily Vitamins, Minerals, and Trace Elements charts save to a mobile or computer in order to check your supplements’ ingredients.

You can check, not only if they exceed the maximum upper limit (UL), but also if you are covered by each ingredient that the supplement contains. For example, a multivitamin supplement may for example contain only 20-30% of the iron or magnesium you need per day. And many more supplements may have a smaller percentage of a vitamin or element, or even contain only certain vitamins and minerals, which they may do either for absorption or interaction reasons or because the formulation may have a specific targeted action ( e.g. skin health, metabolism enhancement, bone health), etc

Τι είναι τα ιχνοστοιχεία ιχνοστοιχεια πινακας Μεταλλα και ιχνοστοιχεια βικιπαιδεια Μεταλλα και ιχνοστοιχεια pdf Μεταλλα και ιχνοστοιχεια ποια ειναι ιχνοστοιχεια τροφες μεταλλα τροφες Ιχνοστοιχεία βικιπαίδεια
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Also, for most vitamins, minerals and trace elements the daily dosage refers to the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) which means the average daily intake level sufficient to cover the nutrient needs of almost all (97%–98%) healthy individuals. In other words, it is the minimum so as not to show deficiency. In cases where the recommended dose is very small, and the maximum allowable very high, while at the same time the element shows very low toxicity, we see even in approved well-known supplements far exceeding the recommended daily dose, e.g. vitamin C, B2, B1, etc. This happens because most vitamins, minerals and trace elements are safe for healthy people if we take them in an amount less than the maximum permissible dose (Upper Limit -UL).

Τι είναι τα ιχνοστοιχεία ιχνοστοιχεια πινακας Μεταλλα και ιχνοστοιχεια βικιπαιδεια Μεταλλα και ιχνοστοιχεια pdf Μεταλλα και ιχνοστοιχεια ποια ειναι ιχνοστοιχεια τροφες μεταλλα τροφες Ιχνοστοιχεία βικιπαίδεια

It is useful to be aware of the supplements we take -where and to what extent they cover our needs. Also, it is very important to be careful not to overdo it with “dangerous” ingredients – such as iron, and vitamin D – because by taking doses higher than the maximum allowed – thinking that they are just vitamins that do good – we can cause unwanted side effects and put our organism in danger.

Vitamins, minerals, and trace elements are chemical compounds that both lack, and excessive consumption beyond the maximum permissible limit and can cause problems in our body.

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What side effects does each vitamin and mineral have if we exceed the Upper Limit (UL)?

Vitamins, minerals, and trace elements can rarely cause side effects if they come from food (a balanced diet). In very few cases, toxicity can also occur from large consumption of foods with a high content of a particular element. A typical example is Brazil nuts, which have a very high content of selenium.

Water Soluble Vitamins

Η λήψη υπερβολικής ποσότητας βιταμίνης C μπορεί να προκαλέσει διάρροια, ναυτία και κράμπες στο στομάχι. Σε άτομα με μια πάθηση που ονομάζεται αιμοχρωμάτωση, η οποία προκαλεί το σώμα να αποθηκεύει πάρα πολύ σίδηρο, οι υψηλές δόσεις βιταμίνης C θα μπορούσαν να επιδεινώσουν την υπερφόρτωση σιδήρου και να βλάψουν τους ιστούς του σώματος.

ημερήσια ανώτατα όρια για τη βιταμίνη C περιλαμβάνουν προσλήψεις από όλες τις πηγές —τροφές, ποτά και συμπληρώματα— και είναι:

  • 2000mg για τους ενήλικες
  • 1800 mg για εφήβους 14-18 ετών

Η θειαμίνη δεν έχει αποδειχθεί ότι προκαλεί κάποια βλάβη και δεν έχει οριστεί κάποιο ανώτατο ημερήσιο όριο για τη βιταμίνη Β1.

Η Ριβοφλαβίνη δεν έχει αποδειχθεί ότι προκαλεί κάποια βλάβη και δεν έχει οριστεί κάποιο ανώτατο ημερήσιο όριο για τη βιταμίνη Β2.

Η νιασίνη που περιέχουν φυσικά τα τρόφιμα και τα ποτά είναι ασφαλής. Ωστόσο, τα συμπληρώματα διατροφής με 30 mg ή περισσότερο νικοτινικού οξέος μπορεί να κάνουν το δέρμα στο πρόσωπο, τα χέρια και το στήθος σας να κοκκινίσει και να καεί, να μυρμηγκιάσει και να κνησμό. Αυτά τα συμπτώματα μπορούν επίσης να οδηγήσουν σε πονοκεφάλους, εξανθήματα και ζάλη.
Εάν λαμβάνετε νικοτινικό οξύ ως φάρμακο σε δόσεις 1.000 ή περισσότερες mg/ημέρα, μπορεί να προκαλέσει πιο σοβαρές παρενέργειες. Αυτά περιλαμβάνουν:
Χαμηλή αρτηριακή πίεση (η οποία μπορεί να αυξήσει τον κίνδυνο πτώσεων)
Εξαιρετική κούραση
Υψηλά επίπεδα σακχάρου στο αίμα
Ναυτία, καούρα και κοιλιακό άλγος
Θολή ή εξασθενημένη όραση και συσσώρευση υγρών στα μάτια
Η μακροχρόνια θεραπεία, ειδικά με μορφές νικοτινικού οξέος παρατεταμένης αποδέσμευσης, μπορεί να προκαλέσει ηπατικά προβλήματα, συμπεριλαμβανομένης της ηπατίτιδας και ηπατικής ανεπάρκειας.
Η νιασίνη με τη μορφή νικοτιναμίδης έχει λιγότερες παρενέργειες από το νικοτινικό οξύ. Ωστόσο, σε υψηλές δόσεις των 500 mg/ημέρα ή περισσότερο, η νικοτιναμίδη μπορεί να προκαλέσει διάρροια, εύκολους μώλωπες και μπορεί να αυξήσει την αιμορραγία από τις πληγές. Ακόμη υψηλότερες δόσεις των 3.000 mg/ημέρα ή περισσότερο μπορεί να προκαλέσουν ναυτία, έμετο και ηπατική βλάβη.
Τα ημερήσια ανώτατα όρια για τη νιασίνη από τα συμπληρώματα διατροφής είναι:

  • 35 mg για ενήλικες
  • 30 mg για εφήβους (14-18 ετών)

Η λήψη υπερβολικής ποσότητας χολίνης μπορεί να προκαλέσει μυρωδιά ψαριούεμετό, έντονη εφίδρωση και σιελόρροιαχαμηλή αρτηριακή πίεση και ηπατική βλάβη. Ορισμένες έρευνες δείχνουν επίσης ότι οι υψηλές ποσότητες χολίνης μπορεί να αυξήσουν τον κίνδυνο καρδιακών παθήσεων.
Τα ημερήσια ανώτατα όρια για τη χολίνη περιλαμβάνουν προσλήψεις από όλες τις πηγές—τροφές, ποτά και συμπληρώματα—και είναι:

  • 3500 mg για τους ενήλικες
  • 3000 mg για τους εφήβους (14-18 ετών)

να προκαλέσουν ναυτία, έμετο και ηπατική βλάβη.
Τα ημερήσια ανώτατα όρια για τη νιασίνη από τα συμπληρώματα διατροφής είναι:

  • 35 mg για ενήλικες
  • 30 mg για εφήβους (14-18 ετών)

Το παντοθενικό οξύ είναι ασφαλές, ακόμη και σε υψηλές δόσεις. Ωστόσο, η λήψη πολύ υψηλών δόσεων συμπληρωμάτων παντοθενικού οξέος (όπως 10.000 mg την ημέρα) μπορεί να προκαλέσει στομαχικές διαταραχές και διάρροια.

Οι άνθρωποι σχεδόν ποτέ δεν λαμβάνουν υπερβολική ποσότητα βιταμίνης Β6 από τα τρόφιμα ή τα ποτά. Αλλά η λήψη υψηλών επιπέδων βιταμίνης Β6 από συμπληρώματα για ένα χρόνο ή περισσότερο μπορεί να προκαλέσει σοβαρή νευρική βλάβη, οδηγώντας τους ανθρώπους να χάσουν τον έλεγχο των σωματικών τους κινήσεων. Τα συμπτώματα συνήθως σταματούν όταν σταματήσουν να παίρνουν τα συμπληρώματα. Άλλα συμπτώματα υπερβολικής ποσότητας βιταμίνης Β6 περιλαμβάνουν επώδυνες, αντιαισθητικές δερματικές κηλίδες, εξαιρετική ευαισθησία στο ηλιακό φως, ναυτία και καούρα.
Τα ημερήσια ανώτατα όρια για τη βιταμίνη Β6 περιλαμβάνουν προσλήψεις από όλες τις πηγές—τροφές, ποτά και συμπληρώματα—και παρατίθενται παρακάτω. Αυτά τα επίπεδα δεν ισχύουν για άτομα που λαμβάνουν βιταμίνη Β6 για ιατρικούς λόγους υπό την επίβλεψη γιατρού.

  • 100 mg για ενήλικες
  • 80 mg για εφήβους (14-18 ετών)

Η βιοτίνη δεν έχει αποδειχθεί ότι προκαλεί βλάβη. Ωστόσο, τα συμπληρώματα που περιέχουν βιοτίνη πάνω από τις συνιστώμενες ποσότητες μπορεί να προκαλέσουν ψευδή αποτελέσματα σε ορισμένες εργαστηριακές εξετάσεις, συμπεριλαμβανομένων αυτών που μετρούν τα επίπεδα ορισμένων ορμονών, όπως η ορμόνη του θυρεοειδούς.

Η λήψη μεγάλων ποσοτήτων συμπληρωμάτων φυλλικού οξέος μπορεί να κρύβει μια ανεπάρκεια βιταμίνης Β12, επειδή αυτά τα συμπληρώματα μπορούν να διορθώσουν την αναιμία που προκαλεί η ανεπάρκεια βιταμίνης Β12, αλλά όχι τη νευρική βλάβη που προκαλεί επίσης η ανεπάρκεια βιταμίνης Β12. Η ανεπάρκεια βιταμίνης Β12 μπορεί να οδηγήσει σε μόνιμη βλάβη του εγκεφάλου, του νωτιαίου μυελού και των νεύρων. Μεγάλες δόσεις συμπληρωμάτων φυλλικού οξέος μπορεί επίσης να επιδεινώσουν τα συμπτώματα της ανεπάρκειας βιταμίνης Β12.
Υψηλές δόσεις φυλλικού οξέος μπορεί να αυξήσουν τον κίνδυνο καρκίνου του παχέος εντέρου και πιθανώς άλλων καρκίνων σε μερικούς ανθρώπους. Οι υψηλές δόσεις μπορούν επίσης να οδηγήσουν σε περισσότερο φολικό οξύ στον οργανισμό από ό,τι μπορεί να χρησιμοποιήσει, αλλά το αν αυτά τα αυξημένα επίπεδα φυλλικού οξέος είναι επιβλαβή δεν είναι απολύτως σαφές.
Τα ημερήσια ανώτατα όρια για φυλλικό οξύ από συμπληρώματα και εμπλουτισμένα τρόφιμα και ποτά παρατίθενται παρακάτω.

  • Ενήλικες 19+ ετών 1.000 mcg
  • Έφηβοι 14–18 ετών 800 mcg

Η βιταμίνη Β12 δεν έχει αποδειχθεί ότι προκαλεί βλάβη, ακόμη και σε υψηλές δόσεις.

Taking too much vitamin C can cause diarrhea, nausea, and stomach cramps. In people with a condition called hemochromatosis, which causes the body to store too much iron, high doses of vitamin C could worsen iron overload and damage body tissues.

The daily upper limits for vitamin C include intakes from all sources—food, drink, and supplements—and are:

  • 2000mg for adults
  • 1800 mg for adolescents 14-18 years old

Thiamine has not been shown to cause any harm and no upper daily limit has been set for vitamin B1.

Riboflavin has not been shown to cause any harm and no upper daily limit has been set for vitamin B2.

Niacin found naturally in foods and drinks is safe. However, dietary supplements with 30 mg or more of nicotinic acid can make the skin on your face, hands, and chest red and burn, tingle, and itch. These symptoms can also lead to headaches, rashes, and dizziness.
If you take nicotinic acid as a medicine in doses of 1,000 or more mg/day, it can cause more serious side effects. These include:
Low blood pressure (which can increase the risk of falls)
Extreme fatigue
High blood sugar levels
Nausea, heartburn and abdominal pain
Blurred or impaired vision and fluid build-up in the eyes
Long-term treatment, especially with extended-release forms of nicotinic acid, can cause liver problems, including hepatitis and liver failure.
Niacin in the form of nicotinamide has fewer side effects than nicotinic acid. However, at high doses of 500 mg/day or more, nicotinamide can cause diarrhea, easy bruising, and may increase bleeding from wounds. Even higher doses of 3,000 mg/day or more can cause nausea, vomiting, and liver damage.
The daily upper limits for niacin from dietary supplements are:

  • 35 mg for adults
  • 30 mg for adolescents (14-18 years)

Taking too much choline can cause a fishy smell, vomiting, profuse sweating and salivation, low blood pressure, and liver damage. Some research also suggests that high amounts of choline may increase the risk of heart disease.
Daily upper limits for choline include intakes from all sources—food, beverages, and supplements—and are:

  • 3500 mg for adults
  • 3000 mg for adolescents (14-18 years)

Pantothenic acid is safe, even in high doses. However, taking very high doses of pantothenic acid supplements (such as 10,000 mg per day) can cause stomach upset and diarrhea.

People almost never get too much vitamin B6 from food or drink. But taking high levels of vitamin B6 from supplements for a year or more can cause severe nerve damage, leading people to lose control of their body movements. Symptoms usually stop when they stop taking the supplements. Other symptoms of too much vitamin B6 include painful, unsightly skin patches, extreme sensitivity to sunlight, nausea and heartburn.
Daily upper limits for vitamin B6 include intakes from all sources—food, beverages, and supplements—and are listed below. These levels do not apply to people taking vitamin B6 for medical reasons under the supervision of a doctor.

  • 100 mg for adults
  • 80 mg for adolescents (14-18 years)

Biotin has not been shown to cause harm. However, supplements containing biotin in excess of recommended amounts may cause false positives in certain laboratory tests, including those that measure levels of certain hormones, such as thyroid hormone.

Folic acid that occurs naturally in foods and drinks is not harmful. However, you should not consume folic acid in supplements or fortified foods and drinks in amounts above the upper limit, unless recommended by a doctor.
Taking large amounts of folic acid supplements can mask a vitamin B12 deficiency because these supplements can correct the anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency, but not the nerve damage that vitamin B12 deficiency also causes. Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to permanent brain, spinal cord and nerve damage. Large doses of folic acid supplements may also worsen the symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency.
High doses of folic acid may increase the risk of colon cancer and possibly other cancers in some people. High doses can also lead to more folic acid in the body than it can use, but whether these increased levels of folic acid are harmful is not entirely clear.
Daily upper limits for folate from supplements and fortified foods and beverages are listed below.

  • Adults 19+ years 1,000 mcg
  • Adolescents 14–18 years 800 mcg

Vitamin B12 has not been shown to cause harm, even in high doses.

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Fat Soluble Vitamins

High intake of some forms of vitamin A can be harmful.
Taking too much-preformed vitamin A (usually from supplements or certain medications) can cause a severe headache, blurred vision, nausea, dizziness, muscle aches, and coordination problems. In severe cases, taking too much-preformed vitamin A can even lead to coma and death.
If you take too much preformed vitamin A while you’re pregnant, it can cause birth defects in your baby, including abnormal eyes, skull, lungs, and heart. If you are or may be pregnant or breastfeeding, you should not take high-dose preformed vitamin A supplements.
High intakes of beta-carotene do not cause the same problems as preformed vitamin A. Eating high amounts of beta-carotene can turn the skin yellow-orange, but this condition is harmless and goes away when you eat less.
Daily upper limits for preformed vitamin A include intakes from all sources—food, beverages, and supplements—and are listed below. These levels do not apply to people taking vitamin A for medical reasons under the supervision of a doctor. There are no upper limits for beta-carotene and other forms of provitamin A.

  • Adults 3,000 mcg
  • Adolescents 14–18 years 2,800 mcg

Taking too much vitamin D can be harmful. Very high levels of vitamin D in your blood (above 375 nmol/L or 150 ng/mL) can cause nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, confusion, pain, loss of appetite, dehydration, excessive urination and thirst, and kidney stones. Extremely high levels of vitamin D can cause kidney failure, irregular heartbeat, and even death. High vitamin D levels are almost always caused by consuming excessive amounts of vitamin D from dietary supplements. You can’t get too much vitamin D from the sun because your skin limits the amount of vitamin D it makes.
Daily upper limits for vitamin D include intakes from all sources—food, drink, and supplements—and are listed below in micrograms (mcg) and international units (IU):

Adults & adolescents: 100 mcg (4,000 IU)

Vitamin E naturally present in foods and beverages is not harmful and does not need to be restricted.
In supplement form, however, high doses of vitamin E may increase the risk of bleeding (reducing the blood’s ability to form clots after a cut or injury) and severe bleeding in the brain (known as hemorrhagic stroke). Because of this risk, the upper limit for adults is 1,000 mg/day for either natural or synthetic vitamin E supplements. This equates to 1,500 IU/day for natural vitamin E supplements and 1,100 IU/day for synthetic vitamin E supplements. Some research suggests that taking vitamin E supplements even below these upper limits can cause harm. In one study, for example, men who took 400 IU (180 mg) of synthetic vitamin E every day for several years had an increased risk of prostate cancer.

Vitamin K has not been shown to cause harm. However, it may interact with certain medications, particularly warfarin (Coumadin®).

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Minerals and Trace Elements

Boron in food and beverages is not harmful. But boron can cause harm if a person accidentally ingests cleaning products or pesticides that contain certain forms of boron, such as borax (sodium borate) or boric acid.
Symptoms of too much boron include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rashes, headaches and convulsions. Very high amounts of boron can cause death.
Daily upper limits for boron include intake from all sources—food, beverages, and supplements—and are listed below in milligrams (mg)

  • Adolescents 14–18 years 17 mg
  • Adults 20 mg

Some research suggests that high calcium intake may increase the risk of heart disease and prostate cancer.
High levels of calcium in the blood and urine can cause poor muscle tone, poor kidney function, low phosphate levels, constipation, nausea, weight loss, extreme fatigue, frequent urination, abnormal heart rhythms, and a high risk of death from heart disease. However, high levels of calcium in the blood and urine are usually caused by a health condition such as high parathyroid hormone levels or cancer rather than high calcium intake.
Daily upper limits for calcium include intakes from all sources—food, beverages, and supplements—and are listed below.

  • Children 9–18 years 3,000 mg
  • Adults 19–50 years 2,500 mg
  • Adults 51 years and older 2,000 mg

Too much sodium chloride from salted foods can:

Increase your blood pressure
It causes fluid retention in people with congestive heart failure, cirrhosis or kidney disease

Upper limit:

  • Adolescents and Adults: 3.6 gr

Chromium from food and supplements does not appear to cause any harm, but research is limited. People with kidney or liver disease should be careful about taking high amounts of chromium.

Copper can be harmful if you take too much. Taking too much copper on a regular basis can cause liver damage, abdominal pain, cramps, nausea, diarrhea and vomiting. Copper toxicity is rare in healthy individuals.
The daily upper limits for copper include intakes from all sources—food, drink, and supplements—and are listed below in micrograms (mcg):

Adolescents 14–18 years 8,000 mcg
Adults 10,000 mcg

Taking high levels of iodine can cause some of the same symptoms as iodine deficiency, including goiter (an enlarged thyroid gland). High iodine intake can also cause inflammation of the thyroid gland and thyroid cancer. Taking a very large dose of iodine (several grams, for example) can cause burning in the mouth, throat and stomach. fever; stomach ache; motion sickness; vomiting, diarrhea? weak pulse and coma.
The daily maximum limits for iodine include intakes from all sources—food, drink, and supplements—and are listed below.

These levels do not apply to people taking iodine for medical reasons under a doctor’s supervision.

  • Adolescents 14–18 years: 900 mcg
  • Adults: 1,100 mcg

Iron can be harmful if you get too much. In healthy people, taking high doses of iron supplements (especially on an empty stomach) can cause stomach upset, constipation, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. Large amounts of iron can also cause more serious effects, including inflammation of the stomach lining and ulcers. High doses of iron can also reduce zinc absorption. Extremely high doses of iron (hundreds or thousands of mg) can cause organ failure, coma, convulsions, and death. Child-resistant packaging and warning labels on iron supplements have significantly reduced the number of accidental iron poisonings in children.
Daily upper limits for iron include intake from all sources—food, drink, and supplements—and are listed below. A doctor may prescribe more than the maximum iron limit for people who need higher doses for a short time to treat iron deficiency.

Adolescents & Adults: 45 mg

Studies have shown no harm from manganese in food and drink. However, some people have developed manganese toxicity by consuming water that contains very high levels of manganese. Another cause of manganese toxicity is the inhalation of large amounts of manganese dust from welding or mining operations.
Symptoms of manganese toxicity include tremors, muscle spasms, hearing problems, mania, insomnia, depression, loss of appetite, headaches, irritability, weakness, and mood changes.
People should not consume more manganese than the upper limits from food, drink, or dietary supplements unless their doctor advises them to do so.
The daily upper limits for manganese include intake from all sources—food, drink, and supplements—and are listed below.

  • Adolescents 14–18 years: 9 mg
  • Adults: 11 mg

Molybdenum from food and drink does not cause any harm. However, people exposed to high levels of molybdenum in the air and soil, such as miners and metal workers, sometimes experience joint pain, gout-like symptoms, and high blood levels of uric acid (a substance that is normally excreted in the urine your).
Daily upper limits for molybdenum include intakes from all sources—food, beverages, and supplements—and are listed below in micrograms (mcg).

Adolescents 14–18 years 1,700 mcg
Adults 2,000 mcg

Magnesium that occurs naturally in foods and beverages is not harmful and does not need to be restricted. In healthy people, the kidneys can get rid of any excess in the urine. However, magnesium in dietary supplements and medicines should not be consumed in amounts above the maximum limit, unless recommended by a doctor.
Daily upper limits for magnesium from dietary supplements and/or drugs are listed below. For many age groups, the upper limit appears to be lower than the recommended amount. That’s because recommended amounts include magnesium from all sources—food, beverages, supplements, and medications. The upper limits include magnesium from only dietary supplements and medications. they do not contain magnesium which is found naturally in food and drinks.

Adults & Adolescents: 350 mg

High phosphorus intake rarely causes problems in healthy people. However, you should not get more phosphorus than the upper limits from foods, drinks, and dietary supplements, unless your doctor recommends that you do so.
Daily upper limits for phosphorus include intakes from all sources—food, beverages, and supplements—and are listed below in milligrams (mg).

Adolescents & Adults up to 70 years old 4,000 mg
Adults 71+ years 3,000 mg

 

Potassium from food and drink has not been shown to cause harm in healthy people who have normal kidney function. Excess potassium is excreted in the urine.
However, people with chronic kidney disease and those using certain medications may develop abnormally high levels of potassium in their blood (a condition called hyperkalemia).
Even in healthy people, getting too much potassium from supplements or salt substitutes can cause hyperkalemia if they consume so much potassium that their bodies can’t eliminate the excess.

Selenium is harmful in high amounts. Brazil nuts, for example, contain very high amounts of selenium (68–91 mcg per nut) and can put you over the limit if you eat too many. Taking too much selenium over time can cause the following: garlic-smelling breath Nausea Diarrhea
Skin rashes, Metallic taste in the mouth, Brittle hair or nails, Loss of hair or nails, Discolored teeth, and nervous system problems. Extremely high intake of selenium can cause serious problems such as difficulty breathing, tremors, kidney failure, heart attack, and heart failure.
Daily upper limits for selenium include intakes from all sources—food, drink, and supplements—and are listed below.

Adolescents & Adults: 400 mcg

Zinc has side effects in high doses. Signs of too much zinc include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, stomach cramps, diarrhea and headaches. When people take too much zinc for a long time, they sometimes have problems such as low copper levels, a lower immune system, and low levels of HDL cholesterol (the “good” cholesterol).
Daily upper limits for zinc include intakes from all sources—food, beverages, and supplements—and are listed below. These levels do not apply to people taking zinc for medical reasons under a doctor’s supervision:

Adolescents 14–18 years 34 mg
Adults 40 mg

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What are the symptoms of the lack of each vitamin and metal if we do not receive the Daily Recommended Dose?

Water Soluble Vitamins

Vitamin C deficiency is rare today. People who receive little or no vitamin C (less than about 10 mg per day) for many weeks may develop scurvy. Scurvy causes fatigue, inflamed gums, small red or purple spots on the skin, joint pain, poor wound healing, and corkscrew hair. Additional signs of scurvy include depression as well as swelling, bleeding gums and loosening or loss of teeth. People with scurvy may also develop anemia. Scurvy is fatal if left untreated.

You can develop thiamine deficiency if you don’t get enough thiamine in the foods you eat, or if your body excretes too much or absorbs too little thiamine.
Thiamine deficiency can cause weight and appetite loss, confusion, memory loss, muscle weakness, and heart problems. Severe thiamine deficiency leads to a disease called beriberi with the additional symptoms of tingling and numbness in the legs and arms, muscle wasting and poor reflexes. Beriberi is not common in developed countries.
A more common example of thiamine deficiency in developed countries is Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, which mainly affects people with alcoholism. It causes tingling and numbness in the hands and feet, severe memory loss, disorientation and confusion.

You may develop a riboflavin deficiency if you don’t get enough riboflavin from the foods you eat, or if you have certain diseases or hormonal disorders.
Riboflavin deficiency can cause skin disorders, sores at the corners of your mouth, swollen and chapped lips, hair loss, sore throats, liver disorders, and problems with your reproductive and nervous systems.
Severe, long-term riboflavin deficiency causes a lack of red blood cells (anemia), which makes you feel weak and tired. It also causes the lens in your eyes to cloud (cataract), which affects your vision.

You can develop a niacin deficiency if you don’t get enough niacin or tryptophan from the foods you eat. Severe niacin deficiency leads to a disease called pellagra. Pellagra, which is uncommon in developed countries, can have the following effects:
Rough skin that turns red or brown in the sun
A bright red tongue
Vomiting, constipation or diarrhea
Depression
Headaches
Extreme fatigue
Aggressive, paranoid or suicidal behavior
Hallucinations, apathy, memory loss
In its final stages, pellagra leads to loss of appetite followed by death.

Although most people in developed countries do not get the recommended amounts of choline, a few people have symptoms of choline deficiency. One reason may be that our body can produce little choline. However, if a person’s choline levels fall too low, they can experience muscle and liver damage, as well as fatty deposits in the liver (a condition called non-alcoholic fatty liver disease that can damage the liver).

Pantothenic acid deficiency is very rare. Severe deficiency can cause numbness and burning in the hands and feet, headache, extreme fatigue, irritability, restlessness, sleep problems, stomach pain, heartburn, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite.

Vitamin B6 deficiency is uncommon. People who don’t get enough vitamin B6 can have a range of symptoms, including anemia, itchy rashes, scaly skin on the lips, cracks in the corners of the mouth, and a swollen tongue. Other symptoms of very low vitamin B6 levels include depression, confusion, and a weak immune system. Infants who don’t get enough vitamin B6 may become irritable or have hypersensitive hearing or seizures.

Folate deficiency is rare, but some people don’t get enough. Getting too little folic acid can lead to megaloblastic anemia, a blood disorder that causes weakness, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, irritability, headache, rapid heartbeat, and shortness of breath. Folic acid deficiency can also cause open sores on the tongue and inside the mouth, as well as changes in the color of the skin, hair, or nails.
Women who don’t get enough folate are at risk of having babies with neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. Folate deficiency can also increase the chance of a premature or low birth weight baby.

Folate deficiency is rare in developed countries, but some people don’t get enough. Getting too little folic acid can lead to megaloblastic anemia, a blood disorder that causes weakness, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, irritability, headache, rapid heartbeat, and shortness of breath. Folic acid deficiency can also cause open sores on the tongue and inside the mouth, as well as changes in the color of the skin, hair or nails.
Women who don’t get enough folate are at risk of having babies with neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. Folate deficiency can also increase the chance of a premature or low birth weight baby.

Your body stores 1,000 to 2,000 times more vitamin B12 than you normally eat in a day, so symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency can take several years to appear.
If you have a vitamin B12 deficiency, you may feel tired or weak. These are symptoms of megaloblastic anemia, which is a hallmark of vitamin B12 deficiency. You may also have pale skin, palpitations, loss of appetite, weight loss and infertility. Your hands and feet may feel numb or tingly, a sign of nerve problems. Other symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include balance problems, depression, confusion, dementia, poor memory, and pain in the mouth or tongue.
In infants, signs of vitamin B12 deficiency include failure to grow, delays in reaching typical developmental milestones, and megaloblastic anemia.
Vitamin B12 deficiency can damage the nervous system, even in people who do not have megaloblastic anemia, so it is important to treat a deficiency as soon as possible.

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Fat Soluble Vitamins

The most common sign of vitamin A deficiency is an eye condition called dry eye. Xerophthalmia is the inability to see in low light and can lead to blindness if left untreated.
A long-term vitamin A deficiency can also lead to a higher risk of respiratory diseases (such as pneumonia) and infections (such as measles and diarrhea). It can also cause anemia (a condition in which red blood cells do not supply enough oxygen to the body). In severe cases, not getting enough vitamin A can increase your chances of death.

In children, vitamin D deficiency causes rickets, a disease in which the bones become soft, weak, misshapen and painful. In teenagers and adults, vitamin D deficiency causes osteomalacia, a disorder that causes bone pain and muscle weakness.

Vitamin E deficiency is very rare in healthy individuals. It is almost always associated with certain diseases in which fat is not properly digested or absorbed. Examples include Crohn’s disease, cystic fibrosis, and some rare genetic diseases such as abetalipoproteinemia and ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED). Vitamin E needs some fat to be absorbed by the digestive system.
Vitamin E deficiency can cause nerve and muscle damage resulting in loss of sensation in the hands and feet, loss of control of body movement, muscle weakness and vision problems. Another sign of deficiency is a weakened immune system.

Severe vitamin K deficiency can cause bruising and bleeding problems because the blood will be slow to clot. Vitamin K deficiency can reduce bone strength and increase the risk of osteoporosis because the body needs vitamin K for healthy bones.

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Minerals & Trace elements

Scientists aren’t sure if low boron intake causes any harm. Some studies suggest that people who consume low amounts of boron may have more trouble staying mentally alert and focused. Getting low amounts of boron can also reduce bone strength.

Too much sodium chloride from salted foods can:

Increase your blood pressure
It causes fluid retention in people with congestive heart failure, cirrhosis or kidney disease

Upper limit:

Adolescents and Adults: 3.6 gr

Symptoms of chromium deficiency can include weight loss, confusion, impaired coordination, and decreased response to blood sugar (glucose), increasing the risk of diabetes.

Copper deficiency is rare. Copper deficiency can cause extreme fatigue, pale patches of skin, high blood cholesterol levels, and connective tissue disorders that affect the joints and skin. Other consequences of copper deficiency are weak and brittle bones, loss of balance and coordination, and increased risk of infection.

Getting too little calcium can cause a number of conditions, including:
Osteoporosis, causes weak, brittle bones and increases the risk of falling
Rickets, a disease in children that causes soft, weak bones
Osteomalacia, which causes soft bones in children and adults

Iodine deficiency is uncommon in developed countries. People who do not get enough iodine cannot produce adequate amounts of thyroid hormone. This can cause many problems. In pregnant women, severe iodine deficiency can permanently damage the fetus causing stunted growth, intellectual disability and delayed sexual development. Less severe iodine deficiency can cause lower than average IQ in infants and children and reduce the ability of adults to work and think clearly. A goitre, an enlarged thyroid gland, is often the first visible sign of iodine deficiency.

In the short term, taking too little iron causes no obvious symptoms. The body uses stored iron in the muscles, liver, spleen and bone marrow. But when the levels of iron stored in the body become low, iron deficiency anemia occurs. Red blood cells become smaller and contain less hemoglobin. As a result, the blood carries less oxygen from the lungs throughout the body.

Symptoms of iron deficiency anemia include gastrointestinal upset, weakness, fatigue, lack of energy, and problems with concentration and memory. In addition, people with iron deficiency anemia are less able to fight germs and infections, work and exercise, and control their body temperature. Infants and children with iron deficiency anemia may develop learning disabilities.

Iron deficiency is not uncommon in developed countries, especially among young children, women under 50, and pregnant women. It can also occur in people who do not eat meat, poultry or seafood. they lose blood, have gastrointestinal diseases that interfere with the absorption of nutrients, or have poor nutrition.

In the short term, taking too little magnesium causes no obvious symptoms. When healthy people have a low intake, the kidneys help conserve magnesium by limiting the amount lost in the urine. However, low magnesium intake over a long period of time can lead to magnesium deficiency. In addition, some medical conditions and medications interfere with the body’s ability to absorb magnesium or increase the amount of magnesium the body excretes, which can also lead to magnesium deficiency. Symptoms of magnesium deficiency include loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fatigue and weakness. Extreme magnesium deficiency can cause numbness, tingling, muscle cramps, seizures, personality changes, and an abnormal heart rhythm.

The following groups of people are more likely than others to get too little magnesium:

People with gastrointestinal conditions (such as Crohn’s disease and celiac disease)
People with type 2 diabetes
People with long-term alcoholism
Older people

Most people get enough manganese from the foods they eat. Manganese deficiency is very rare in developed countries. A deficiency can cause the following symptoms:

Weak bones and poor growth in children
Skin rashes and loss of hair color in men
Mood swings and worse premenstrual pain than normal in women

Molybdenum deficiency is very rare. It only happens in people with a very rare genetic disorder called molybdenum cofactor deficiency. This disorder prevents the body from using molybdenum. It can cause seizures and severe brain damage that usually leads to death within days of birth.

Phosphorus deficiency can cause loss of appetite, anemia (low red blood cell count), muscle weakness, coordination problems, bone pain, soft and misshapen bones, higher risk of infection, burning or stinging skin, and confusion.

Getting too little potassium can increase blood pressure, decrease bone calcium, and increase the risk of kidney stones.

Prolonged diarrhea or vomiting, abuse of laxatives, use of diuretics, consumption of clay, profuse sweating, hemodialysis, or use of certain medications can cause severe potassium deficiency. In this condition, called hypokalemia, blood potassium levels are too low. Symptoms of hypokalemia include constipation, fatigue, muscle weakness, and feeling unwell. More severe hypokalemia can cause increased urination, decreased brain function, high blood sugar, muscle paralysis, difficulty breathing, and an irregular heartbeat. Severe hypokalemia can be life-threatening.

Selenium deficiency is very rare in developed countries. Selenium deficiency can cause Keshan disease (a type of heart disease) and male infertility. It can also cause Kashin-Beck disease, a type of arthritis that causes pain, swelling, and loss of motion in your joints.

Zinc deficiency is rare in developed countries. It causes slow growth in infants and children, delayed sexual development in adolescents, and impotence in males. Zinc deficiency also causes hair loss, diarrhea, eye and skin sores, and loss of appetite. Weight loss, problems with wound healing, reduced ability to taste food, and lower levels of alertness may also occur.

Many of these symptoms can be signs of problems other than zinc deficiency. If you have these symptoms, your doctor can help determine whether you may have a zinc deficiency.