Egg: Nutrition Facts / 1 egg (hard-boiled)
1 large boiled egg (50gr)
Daily Coverage for diet 2000kcal *
Daily Coverage for adults 70 kg *
9 Essential Amino Acids (ΕΑΑ's) ->2.77 gr
6 Potentional Essential Amino Acids-> 1.25 gr
Glutamic acid amide
2. Asparaganic Acid
Asparaganic Acid Amide
4. Glutamic Acid
* Aminogramm does not include the amino acids glutamine and asparagine, which are glutamic acid and asparagine acid amides, respectively.
Energy /1 egg
Daily Coverage for diet 2000kcal *
Vitamins, Minerals & Trace elements
Daily Coverage for diet 2000kcal *
Pantothenic Acid (B5)
Folic Acid (Β9)
The protein in the chicken egg has the maximum biological value index of BV 100. This practically means that eating 1 egg all the protein it contains will be absorbed by our body.
EAA's content (essential amino acids)
2,8 gr ΕAA's
1 egg 🥚 contains 2,8gr ΕAΑ's (Essential Amino Acids)
BCAA's Content (branched chain amino acids)
1,3 gr BCAA's
Of the 2.8 g EAA contained in 1 egg, 1.3 g is BCAA's.
Egg:A superfood in your fridge!
The egg is not only at the top of foods with high biological value protein but is itself the measure of the comparison set by scientists (BV 100) for the protein quality of other foods. With a biological value of absolute 100 (BV), the egg is the only food (after the concentrated whey) whose protein will be completely absorbed by our body.
The egg is an essential formula of macronutrients and micronutrients that meet all the requirements to support embryonic development until hatching. The perfect balance and diversity in its nutrients, as well as its high digestibility and affordable price, have made the egg a basic food for humans.
The egg was previously targeted (theoretically) by the American Heart Association because of its cholesterol content. However, most experimental, clinical, and epidemiological studies of the last 50 years have concluded that there is no evidence of an association between dietary cholesterol in eggs and an increase in total plasma cholesterol.
The egg remains a high-quality nutritional product for adults, the elderly, children, and athletes and is widely consumed worldwide. At the same time, there is a lot of evidence that the egg also contains many and unexplored bioactive compounds, which can be of great interest for the prevention/treatment of diseases.
Proteins contained in egg white, their benefits and properties
Ovalbumin is the highest in concentration egg protein and almost half the protein of the egg white. According to the international literature it has antimicrobial, antioxidant and immunoregulatory properties. Ovalbumin, when denatured by heat , was found to have a high anti-mutagenic effect. Ovalbumin peptides have antihypertensive and vasodilator effects and therefore help prevent and treat hypertension.
Ovotransferin from chicken egg white and its derivatives peptides exhibit a wide range of functional properties. Ootransferrin belongs to the family of transferrines that have the property of transporting iron while at the same time exhibiting multiple bioactivities, including antimicrobial activity for a wide range of bacteria, fungi, yeasts and parasites . It also has antioxidant, anti-cancer and immunoregulatory activity.
Lysozyme is an antimicrobial enzyme that is present in large quantities in egg whites. It is also found in human milk, saliva and tears. It is widely used in food and medicine as an antimicrobial agent. According to the international literature lysozyme also has antihypertensive, anti-cancer and immunoregulatory activity
Cystatin is a biologically active ingredient in egg white, used primarily as a cysteine protease inhibitor. It was originally isolated from egg white and is widely used in food and medicine. Research has linked cystatin to anti-cancer and immunomodulatory effects. Cystatin has been widely studied as an anticancer drug and as an antimicrobial and antifungal agent.
Avidin is a protein found in egg whites that has the ability to bind biotin. This property is lost when heated during cooking. For this reason, the consumption of raw eggs leads to a serious lack of biotin in people who consume them. According to the literature it is a protein with antimicrobial and anticancer activity. It is studied and widely used in anti-cancer drugs.
Ovomycin represents 3.5% of the total protein in the egg white, it is responsible for the thick gel characteristics of the egg white. In addition to its excellent ability to create foam and emulsion , it has anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer and other bioactive roles. It has recently been the subject of research to explore its full potential in new applications in functional foods and nutrients.
Proteins contained in egg yolk, their benefits and properties
Fosvitin is one of the phosphoproteins in chicken eggs. It is the most phosphorylated protein ever isolated in nature. According to the international literature, fosvitin has the following properties:
Metal Chelation Activity
IgY antibodies are found in chicken egg yolk in orfer to protect the unborn chicken in a similar way the breast milk contains antibodies for the immunity of the baby. The oral use of antibodies from chicken egg yolk in the fight against bacterial infections, intestinal infections and other diseases has attracted the interest of several studies in recent times. According to the international literature, IgY antibodies from egg yolk have anti-cancer and immunoregulatory activity.
Egg yolk livetin has been found to have anti-inflammatory effects as it suppresses the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The enzymatic hydrolysis products of livetin produced by pepsin and alkalase show strong anti-inflammatory activity. In particular, they reduce the production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2, which are strongly associated with various inflammatory diseases. According to the literature, levitin also has immunoregulatory activity.
Eggs Interesting Facts
1. It is a natural Protein supplement
Eggs contain the most bioavailable protein with a Biological value of 100. The only food that is above the egg in biological value is concentrated whey (BV 103) – the well-known protein supplement.
1 egg contains 6.3 g of protein:
- 2.8 g EAA’s Essential Amino Acids (of which 1.3 BCAA’S)
- 1.25 g potentially essential amino acids
- 2.27 g non-essential amino acids
2. It is rich in Vitamins, Minerals & Trace elements
The egg and more specifically the egg yolk is rich in vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. Egg yolk contains all the vitamins except vitamin C. This is because birds have the ability to synthesize vitamin C from glucose on their own.
The egg is rich in phosphorus, calcium, potassium and also contains all the essential trace elements, such as copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, selenium, and zinc with egg yolk being the main contributor to the supply of iron and zinc. The presence of such minerals and micronutrients in eggs is quite interesting, as a deficiency in some of them has been associated with depression, fatigue, and the development of pathological diseases.
3. They are high in Choline
Eggs after bovine liver are the second source of choline for humans. But because the beef liver is not widely consumed, the egg in many countries is the first source of choline for the population.A single egg covers about 33% of an adult’s daily choline needs. Choline is essential for the synthesis of basic building blocks of cell membranes and therefore essential for cell maintenance and growth at all stages of our lives.
In addition, choline is essential for the production of acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter for:
- the memory
- the mood
- muscle control
- and other functions of the brain and nervous system
Choline also plays an important role in shaping gene expression, cell membrane signaling, lipid transport and metabolism, and early brain development.
4. Consumption of whole egg stimulates muscle anabolism more intensely than egg whites
In a study of young men, the degree of stimulation of muscle protein synthesis was examined when consuming whole eggs after training compared to the corresponding stimulation when consuming only egg whites with the same amount of protein. The conclusion of the research was that the consumption of whole egg (with the nutritious yolk) in relation to the consumption of only egg whites stimulates the synthesis of proteins in the muscles more intensely when it is consumed after training.
Another interesting study is the synthesis of fortetropin, a proteolipid complex made from fertilized egg yolk that has anti-myostatin activity. Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle growth and has become an important target for pharmaceutical companies planning therapies to treat age-related muscle loss. When fortetropin was taken as a supplement not only prevented the loss of muscle mass in the elderly but also contributed to the increase in lean muscle mass in young people who train with resistance. The first commercial egg protein supplement with fortetropin from a fertilized yolk egg is already available in the USA.
5. Eggs have strong antioxidant activity
Few people know that eggs, in addition to being highly nutritious, have strong antioxidant activity due to yolk, egg white, and egg protein derivatives when broken down by enzymes (eg during digestion).
Some antioxidant activities of the egg based on research:
- Metal chelation ability
- Antioxidant capacity
- Free radical scavenging
- Participation in antioxidant mechanisms
- Enzymatic cleavage products involved in antioxidant mechanisms
6. They have strong antimicrobial activity
Egg peptides have been studied extensively for their antimicrobial activity. Specific peptides from egg yolk and egg white have been shown to have antimicrobial activity against:
- Escherichia coli
- Staphylococcus aureus
- Streptococcus mutans
- Pseudomonas sp
- Bacillus cereus
- Listeria monocytogenes
- Helicobacter pylori
Another property of the egg is the ability to chelate metals acting as iron purifiers, preventing its use by microorganisms. Finally, several egg proteins have a strong effect against bacteria associated with food poisoning. This is why safe egg peptides are used in both the food industry and the pharmaceutical industry as antimicrobials.
7. The hen's diet affects the composition of the eggs
The composition of chicken eggs depends on their diet and living conditions. Some characteristics of eggs that are affected by the hen’s diet are:
- Egg weight: High-calorie hens produce heavier eggs
- Yolk – egg white ratio
- Vitamin content: It is common for farm hens to be fed rich food. Giving hens, for example, vitamin D, E, or A supplements, produces eggs with a higher content of them and so on.
- Tocopherols, lutein, carotenoids: Free-range hens because they have access to grass, worms, and insects produce eggs with a higher content of these compounds. For this reason, the free-range eggs or the eggs from the village have a bright orange yolk.
- Antimicrobial protein composition: Free-range hens, because they come in contact with more microbes, produce eggs with a higher protein content with antimicrobial activity.
8. They have bioactive compounds with as yet unexplored properties.
There is growing evidence that the egg is not just a food of high nutritional value, but that it also contains many bioactive compounds (lipids, vitamins, proteins, and derived hydrolytic peptides) of great interest to human health.
It is noteworthy that for many egg proteins their properties have not yet been determined. Researchers have dealt with egg proteins that exhibit a wide range of antimicrobial activities that could contribute to gut health.
Furthermore, many attempts have been made in recent decades to further characterize the biological activities of hydrolytic peptides derived from eggs and resulting during the digestive process.
To date, 550 distinct egg white and egg yolk proteins have been identified. Of these, only for 20 their physical function and properties have been studied and characterized. This suggests that the egg probably still contains many unknown activities that deserve further investigation.