• 28 May 2022

Vitamin B12 🧠 Properties, Sources & Health Benefits

Jan 26, 2022

What is Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a water-soluble vitamin found naturally in some foods, added to others and available as a dietary supplement and as a prescription drug. Vitamin B12 is required for the development, myelination and function of the central nervous system, the healthy formation of red blood cells and the synthesis of DNA. Vitamin B12 acts as a cofactor for two enzymes, which are involved in 100 different mechanisms and processes involving DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids.

Properties & Benefits of Vitamin B12 in our body:

Ελλειψη β12 Χαμηλη b12 αιτια Βιταμινη β12 υπερβιταμινωση Ανεπαρκεια β12 Μετρηση β12 Βιταμινη β12 παραπανω Ποτε παιρνουμε βιταμινη β12 Deficiency of β12 Low b12 causes Vitamin β12 hypervitaminosis Β12 deficiency Measurement β12 Vitamin β12 above When do we take vitamin β12
Vitamin B12 Properties

Nervous system protection

Vitamin B12 works protectively for our nervous system as its deficiency leads to reduced production of neurotransmitters, myelin damage or increased levels of HCY and methylmalonic acid. Some of the neurological disorders associated with vitamin B12 deficiency are spinal cord sclerosis, polyneuritis, neuropathy, myelopathy, optic nerve atrophy and reduced cognitive function.

βιταμίνη β12 και νευρικο συστημα βιταμίνη β12 αναιμια βιταμινη β12 μεταβολισμος ενεργεια λιπος πινακας τροφων με βιταμινη β12 Η βιταμινη β12 που κανει καλό, ιδιοτητες οφέλη Vitamin B12 and the nervous system vitamin b12 anemia Vitamin B12 fat metabolism energy table of foods with vitamin b12 Vitamin B12 that does good, properties benefits
Vitamin B12 Properties

Protection against anemia

Erythropoiesis is the process by which new red blood cells are produced. These new erythrocytes replace the older erythrocytes (usually about 1%) that are phagocytosed and destroyed every day. Folic acid, vitamin B12 and iron play critical roles in red blood cell production. Erythroblasts require folic acid and vitamin B12 for proliferation during their differentiation and their deficiency causes anemia from ineffective redness.

βιταμίνη β12 dna και νευρικο συστημα βιταμίνη β12 αναιμια βιταμινη β12 μεταβολισμος ενεργεια λιπος πινακας τροφων με βιταμινη β12 Η βιταμινη β12 που κανει καλό, ιδιοτητες οφέλη Vitamin B12 and the nervous system vitamin b12 anemia Vitamin B12 fat metabolism energy table of foods with vitamin b12 Vitamin B12 that does good, properties benefits
Vitamin B12 Properties

DNA Protection

Vitamin B12 is important for DNA synthesis and ensures the structural stability of important regions of chromosomes. It plays a critical role in DNA methylation, which is particularly important during embryogenesis and carcinogenesis. Low nutritional intake of B12 results in correspondingly low serum levels, which cause alterations in DNA synthesis. Thus, B12 deficiency can lead to DNA damage. Dietary B12 can affect epigenetic mechanisms by regulating the methylation state of DNA. Therefore, it can help protect against chronic diseases and serve as a basis for new treatment regimens.

βιταμίνη β12 και νευρικο συστημα βιταμίνη β12 αναιμια βιταμινη β12 μεταβολισμος ενεργεια λιπος πινακας τροφων με βιταμινη β12 Η βιταμινη β12 που κανει καλό, ιδιοτητες οφέλη Vitamin B12 and the nervous system vitamin b12 anemia Vitamin B12 fat metabolism energy table of foods with vitamin b12 Vitamin B12 that does good, properties benefits
Vitamin B12 Properties

Protection against metabolic disorders

The effect of low B12 on the pathogenesis of several metabolic disorders such as obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, has been studied at the preclinical and clinical levels. Clinically, low B12 in children, adolescents, and pregnant mothers has been associated with higher obesity and lipids, as well as an increased risk of insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Babies born to mothers with low B12 levels through poor maternal programming appear to have high-fat accumulation and insulin levels at birth, which may predispose them to a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disorders later in life.

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How much Vitamin B12 do we need per day?

According to the National Institutes of Health, the recommended daily allowance of vitamin B12 depends on age.

βιταμίνη β12 τροφές ιδιοτητες οφελη βιταμινη β12 παρενεργειες πινακας τροφων με βιταμινη β12 Η βιταμινη β12 που κανει καλό, παχαινει Ποσο καιρο μπορω να παιρνω βιταμινη β12 βιταμινη β12 και σιδηρος βιταμινη β12 παιδια δοσολογια Vitamin B12 Foods Benefits Properties vitamin β12 side effects table of foods with vitamin b12 Vitamin B12, which is good, makes you fat How long can I take vitamin b12 Vitamin B12 and Iron vitamin b12 children dosages
AgeDaily Intake
0-6 months0.4 mcg
7-12 months0.5 mcg
1-3 years0.9 mcg
4-8 years1.2 mcg
9-13 years1.8 mcg
14 +2.4 mcg
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Food Sources of Vitamin B12

Plant Origin

βιταμίνη β12 τροφές ιδιοτητες οφελη βιταμινη β12 παρενεργειες πινακας τροφων με βιταμινη β12 Η βιταμινη β12 που κανει καλό, παχαινει Ποσο καιρο μπορω να παιρνω βιταμινη β12 βιταμινη β12 και σιδηρος βιταμινη β12 παιδια δοσολογια Vitamin B12 Foods Benefits Properties vitamin β12 side effects table of foods with vitamin b12 Vitamin B12, which is good, makes you fat How long can I take vitamin b12 Vitamin B12 and Iron vitamin b12 children dosages

1/4 cup yeast (2 tablespoons)
17 mcg * | 60 calories

* Vitamin B12 content from 8-24 mcg depending on the brand

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βιταμίνη β12 τροφές ιδιοτητες οφελη βιταμινη β12 παρενεργειες πινακας τροφων με βιταμινη β12 Η βιταμινη β12 που κανει καλό, παχαινει Ποσο καιρο μπορω να παιρνω βιταμινη β12 βιταμινη β12 και σιδηρος βιταμινη β12 παιδια δοσολογια Vitamin B12 Foods Benefits Properties vitamin β12 side effects table of foods with vitamin b12 Vitamin B12, which is good, makes you fat How long can I take vitamin b12 Vitamin B12 and Iron vitamin b12 children dosages

100 gr tempe | 1 mcg | 192 calories

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βιταμίνη β12 τροφές ιδιοτητες οφελη βιταμινη β12 παρενεργειες πινακας τροφων με βιταμινη β12 Η βιταμινη β12 που κανει καλό, παχαινει Ποσο καιρο μπορω να παιρνω βιταμινη β12 βιταμινη β12 και σιδηρος βιταμινη β12 παιδια δοσολογια Vitamin B12 Foods Benefits Properties vitamin β12 side effects table of foods with vitamin b12 Vitamin B12, which is good, makes you fat How long can I take vitamin b12 Vitamin B12 and Iron vitamin b12 children dosages

1 serving 30 g fortified breakfast cereals *
0.63 mg | 115 calories

* Content of a well-known brand of corn flakes. Vitamin B12 varies on each type of cereal, you will need to check the nutrition facts table of the product

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Animal Origin

βιταμίνη β12 τροφές ιδιοτητες οφελη βιταμινη β12 παρενεργειες πινακας τροφων με βιταμινη β12 Η βιταμινη β12 που κανει καλό, παχαινει Ποσο καιρο μπορω να παιρνω βιταμινη β12 βιταμινη β12 και σιδηρος βιταμινη β12 παιδια δοσολογια Vitamin B12 Foods Benefits Properties vitamin β12 side effects table of foods with vitamin b12 Vitamin B12, which is good, makes you fat How long can I take vitamin b12 Vitamin B12 and Iron vitamin b12 children dosages

12 medium sea urchins cooked (85g)
97 mcg | 126 calories

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βιταμίνη β12 τροφές ιδιοτητες οφελη βιταμινη β12 παρενεργειες πινακας τροφων με βιταμινη β12 Η βιταμινη β12 που κανει καλό, παχαινει Ποσο καιρο μπορω να παιρνω βιταμινη β12 βιταμινη β12 και σιδηρος βιταμινη β12 παιδια δοσολογια Vitamin B12 Foods Benefits Properties vitamin β12 side effects table of foods with vitamin b12 Vitamin B12, which is good, makes you fat How long can I take vitamin b12 Vitamin B12 and Iron vitamin b12 children dosages

140 g tuna in water, 1 can
2.88 mcg | 90 calories

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βιταμίνη β12 τροφές ιδιοτητες οφελη βιταμινη β12 παρενεργειες πινακας τροφων με βιταμινη β12 Η βιταμινη β12 που κανει καλό, παχαινει Ποσο καιρο μπορω να παιρνω βιταμινη β12 βιταμινη β12 και σιδηρος βιταμινη β12 παιδια δοσολογια Vitamin B12 Foods Benefits Properties vitamin β12 side effects table of foods with vitamin b12 Vitamin B12, which is good, makes you fat How long can I take vitamin b12 Vitamin B12 and Iron vitamin b12 children dosages

85 g grilled beef steak
2.4 mcg | 179 calories

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βιταμίνη β12 τροφές ιδιοτητες οφελη βιταμινη β12 παρενεργειες πινακας τροφων με βιταμινη β12 Η βιταμινη β12 που κανει καλό, παχαινει Ποσο καιρο μπορω να παιρνω βιταμινη β12 βιταμινη β12 και σιδηρος βιταμινη β12 παιδια δοσολογια Vitamin B12 Foods Benefits Properties vitamin β12 side effects table of foods with vitamin b12 Vitamin B12, which is good, makes you fat How long can I take vitamin b12 Vitamin B12 and Iron vitamin b12 children dosages

250 ml milk (1 glass)
1.25 mcg | 105 calories

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βιταμίνη β12 τροφές ιδιοτητες οφελη βιταμινη β12 παρενεργειες πινακας τροφων με βιταμινη β12 Η βιταμινη β12 που κανει καλό, παχαινει Ποσο καιρο μπορω να παιρνω βιταμινη β12 βιταμινη β12 και σιδηρος βιταμινη β12 παιδια δοσολογια Vitamin B12 Foods Benefits Properties vitamin β12 side effects table of foods with vitamin b12 Vitamin B12, which is good, makes you fat How long can I take vitamin b12 Vitamin B12 and Iron vitamin b12 children dosages

1 yogurt 2% (200 g)
1.2 mcg | 140 calories

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βιταμίνη β12 τροφές ιδιοτητες οφελη βιταμινη β12 παρενεργειες πινακας τροφων με βιταμινη β12 Η βιταμινη β12 που κανει καλό, παχαινει Ποσο καιρο μπορω να παιρνω βιταμινη β12 βιταμινη β12 και σιδηρος βιταμινη β12 παιδια δοσολογια Vitamin B12 Foods Benefits Properties vitamin β12 side effects table of foods with vitamin b12 Vitamin B12, which is good, makes you fat How long can I take vitamin b12 Vitamin B12 and Iron vitamin b12 children dosages

2 large boiled eggs (100g)
1.11 mcg | 155 calories

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βιταμίνη β12 τροφές ιδιοτητες οφελη βιταμινη β12 παρενεργειες πινακας τροφων με βιταμινη β12 Η βιταμινη β12 που κανει καλό, παχαινει Ποσο καιρο μπορω να παιρνω βιταμινη β12 βιταμινη β12 και σιδηρος βιταμινη β12 παιδια δοσολογια Vitamin B12 Foods Benefits Properties vitamin β12 side effects table of foods with vitamin b12 Vitamin B12, which is good, makes you fat How long can I take vitamin b12 Vitamin B12 and Iron vitamin b12 children dosages

100 gr cottage cheese (1/2 cup)
0.4 mcg | 155 calories

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Vitamin B12 deficiency symptoms

Our bodies store 1,000 to 2,000 times more vitamin B12 than we would normally eat in a day, so the symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency can take several years to appear.

If you have a vitamin B12 deficiency, you may feel tired or weak. These are symptoms of megaloblastic anemia, which is a hallmark of vitamin B12 deficiency. You may also have pale skin, palpitations, loss of appetite, weight loss and infertility. 

Your hands and feet may numb or tingle, a sign of nerve problems. Other symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency include balance problems, depression, confusion, dementia, poor memory and pain in the mouth or tongue.

In infants, signs of vitamin B12 deficiency include stunted growth, delayed achievement of typical developmental milestones, and megaloblastic anemia.

Vitamin B12 deficiency can damage the nervous system even in people who do not have megaloblastic anemia, so it is important to treat the deficiency as soon as possible.

The safest way to see if we have vitamin B12 deficiency is with a simple blood test.

βιταμίνη β12 τροφές ιδιοτητες οφελη βιταμινη β12 παρενεργειες πινακας τροφων με βιταμινη β12 Η βιταμινη β12 που κανει καλό, παχαινει Ποσο καιρο μπορω να παιρνω βιταμινη β12 βιταμινη β12 και σιδηρος βιταμινη β12 παιδια δοσολογια Vitamin B12 Foods Benefits Properties vitamin β12 side effects table of foods with vitamin b12 Vitamin B12, which is good, makes you fat How long can I take vitamin b12 Vitamin B12 and Iron vitamin b12 children dosages

Who is at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency?

βιταμίνη β12 τροφές ιδιοτητες οφελη βιταμινη β12 παρενεργειες πινακας τροφων με βιταμινη β12 Η βιταμινη β12 που κανει καλό, παχαινει Ποσο καιρο μπορω να παιρνω βιταμινη β12 βιταμινη β12 και σιδηρος βιταμινη β12 παιδια δοσολογια Vitamin B12 Foods Benefits Properties vitamin β12 side effects table of foods with vitamin b12 Vitamin B12, which is good, makes you fat How long can I take vitamin b12 Vitamin B12 and Iron vitamin b12 children dosages

The following groups are more likely to be deficient in vitamin B12:

Vitamin B12 is safe in large quantities and it is very easy for vegetarians or vegans and the elderly to get the necessary vitamin B12 from dietary supplements which are usually quite economical. Most multivitamins contain 100% of the vitamin B12 we need.

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Maximum Intake of Vitamin B12

Experts have not set a Maximum Daily Intake (UL) for Vitamin B12 due to its low probability of toxicity. Even in large doses, vitamin B12 is generally considered safe because the body does not store excessive amounts.

Sources & References