• 21 September 2021

Glutamine 💪 The amino acid of the muscles and its properties

May 9, 2021 ,

What is Glutamine?

Glutamine is an amino acid that belongs to the group of non-essential amino acids as our body can synthesize it endogenously on its own. Glutamine is the most abundant and flexible amino acid in the body while most of it is stored in the muscles. It serves as fuel for cells of the immune system while its consumption by the body is an important indicator (similar to glucose) for the state of health. In cases of injuries, burns, recovery from surgery, exhaustion of athletes from exercise, where the glutamine reserves in the body are depleted, doctors give a glutamine supplement. In addition to the muscular, immune, and nervous system, glutamine also plays an important role in the intestinal system.

Why athletes love 💙 Glutamine

Glutamine like any amino acid is the basic building block of proteins. It is an amino acid that is produced and consumed by various tissues and organs in the body constantly.

When the body is in a catabolic state such as illness, injury, burn, sepsis, surgery, strenuous exercise, the glutamine that is produced endogenously is not enough to meet the needs of our body. Because in these cases, glutamine is drawn from the muscles by deconstructing them, glutamine is a well-known supplement to athletes and bodybuilders as it protects the muscles from loss, helps in recovery, reduces the feeling of soreness after intense workouts, and strengthens the Athletes’ immune system.

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The glutamine mechanism in muscles

Healthy

Healthy State

Glutamine produced endogenously --Sufficient
  • Muscles are composed of 60% glutamine
  • Glutamine circulates in the blood
  • Immune cells are supplied with glutamine
  • The brain, intestine, and cells of the body use glutamine
  • The body does not use muscle glutamine
Catabolic

Catabolic state (illness, intense exercise)

The body does not use muscle glutamine
  • The immune system is activated to cope
  • Most immune cells now require more glutamine
  • Muscles 💪 as the largest storage of glutamine in the body "break down" to give the necessary glutamine
  • The body is in a catabolic state

In such cases, by taking a glutamine supplement, we reverse the catabolic state, protecting one of its basic stores, namely our muscles. For this reason, it has been suggested by the scientific community that glutamine should not be considered a “non-essential” amino acid but under conditions necessary.

Organs & systems where Glutamine is involved

Skeletal Muscles

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Skeletal muscle is made up of 60% Glutamine, making it the body's largest store of glutamine.

Lungs

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The lungs consume and release glutamine. In catabolic state, the lungs release large amounts of glutamine.

Liver

γλουταμινη μυες συμπληρωμα διατροφής αθλητισμός προπόνηση αποθεραπεια L γλουταμινη σε σκονη Ποτε παιρνω γλουταμινη γλουταμίνη παρενεργειες ιδιότητες Γλουταμινη για το εντερο glutamine muscle sports nutrition supplement recovery training L glutamine powder When do I take glutamine? glutamine side effects properties Glutamine for the intestine

The liver is the second largest store after skeletal muscle, but this only applies in healthy conditions. In catabolic state the liver only consumes glutamine in order to cope.

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Immmune System

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Glutamine is the fuel of the immune system. Almost all immune cells rely on glutamine to function properly.

Gut

γλουταμινη μυες συμπληρωμα διατροφής αθλητισμός προπόνηση αποθεραπεια L γλουταμινη σε σκονη Ποτε παιρνω γλουταμινη γλουταμίνη παρενεργειες ιδιότητες Γλουταμινη για το εντερο glutamine muscle sports nutrition supplement recovery training L glutamine powder When do I take glutamine? glutamine side effects properties Glutamine for the intestine

Both the small and large intestines are able to metabolize large amounts of glutamine provided by both diet and / or blood circulation. Glutamine for the intestine is quantitatively more important than glucose as an energy substrate.

Brain

γλουταμινη μυες συμπληρωμα διατροφής αθλητισμός προπόνηση αποθεραπεια L γλουταμινη σε σκονη Ποτε παιρνω γλουταμινη γλουταμίνη παρενεργειες ιδιότητες Γλουταμινη για το εντερο glutamine muscle sports nutrition supplement recovery training L glutamine powder When do I take glutamine? glutamine side effects properties Glutamine for the intestine

The brain uses glutamine as a substrate for neurotransmitters and as an energy source for the nervous system. The supply of glutamine to the brain depends mainly on the availability of glutamine in the blood plasma.

Foods Sources of Glutamine

A balanced diet provides enough glutamine and essential amino acids for the body under normal conditions. Foods rich in glutamine are meat, milk, eggs, soy. Red cabbage, rice, corn, and green leafy vegetables follow with smaller amounts of glutamine. On average, the glutamine we need from our diet is 3-6 grams per day.

γλουταμινη μυες συμπληρωμα διατροφής αθλητισμός προπόνηση αποθεραπεια L γλουταμινη σε σκονη τροφές πλούσιες πηγές γλουταμινης γλουταμινη αμινοξή ημερήσιο δοσολογία πόσο παίρνω μοσχάρι κόκκινο λάχανο γάλα αυγά γλουταμίνη glutamine muscle sports nutrition supplement recovery training L glutamine powder foods rich sources of glutamine glutamine amino acid daily dosage how much i take beef red cabbage eggs eggs glutamine

Beef

Quantity: 100 gr
Glutamine: 1.2 gr
Calories: 250 kcal

γλουταμινη μυες συμπληρωμα διατροφής αθλητισμός προπόνηση αποθεραπεια L γλουταμινη σε σκονη τροφές πλούσιες πηγές γλουταμινης γλουταμινη αμινοξή ημερήσιο δοσολογία πόσο παίρνω μοσχάρι κόκκινο λάχανο γάλα αυγά γλουταμίνη glutamine muscle sports nutrition supplement recovery training L glutamine powder foods rich sources of glutamine glutamine amino acid daily dosage how much i take beef red cabbage eggs eggs glutamine

Eggs

Quantity: 2 medium (100gr)
Glutamine: 0.6 gr
Calories: 120 kcal

γλουταμινη μυες συμπληρωμα διατροφής αθλητισμός προπόνηση αποθεραπεια L γλουταμινη σε σκονη τροφές πλούσιες πηγές γλουταμινης γλουταμινη αμινοξή ημερήσιο δοσολογία πόσο παίρνω μοσχάρι κόκκινο λάχανο γάλα αυγά γλουταμίνη glutamine muscle sports nutrition supplement recovery training L glutamine powder foods rich sources of glutamine glutamine amino acid daily dosage how much i take beef red cabbage eggs eggs glutamine

Tofu

Quantity: 100g
Glutamine: 0.6 gr
Calories: 80 kcal

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Corn

Quantity: 100g
Glutamine: 0.4 gr
Calories: 100 kcal

γλουταμινη μυες συμπληρωμα διατροφής αθλητισμός προπόνηση αποθεραπεια L γλουταμινη σε σκονη τροφές πλούσιες πηγές γλουταμινης γλουταμινη αμινοξή ημερήσιο δοσολογία πόσο παίρνω μοσχάρι κόκκινο λάχανο γάλα αυγά γλουταμίνη glutamine muscle sports nutrition supplement recovery training L glutamine powder foods rich sources of glutamine glutamine amino acid daily dosage how much i take beef red cabbage eggs eggs glutamine

Milk 2%

Quantity: 100ml
Glutamine: 0.3 gr
Calories: 45 kcal

κόκκινο λάχανο γλουταμίνη -red cabbage glutamine

Red Cabbage

Quantity: 100g
Glutamine: 0.2 gr
Calories: 25 kcal

Glutamine as an anti-fatigue amino acid in sports nutrition

In a 2019 study, they combined and analyzed data from 55 studies on the effect of glutamine on athlete fatigue. Most of these studies have found that glutamine:

  • Significantly improves some fatigue marks like increasing glycogen synthesis and reducing ammonia accumulation
  • But glutamine had no effect on athletic performance

Fatigue is defined as the inability to maintain endurance and strength, reducing physical performance. The main causes of fatigue are:

  • accumulation of protons in the muscle cell
  • depletion of energy sources (eg phosphocreatine and glycogen)
  • accumulation of ammonia in the blood and tissues
  • oxidative stress
  • muscle damage
  • and changes in the composition of neurotransmitters (such as an increase in serotonin and a decrease in dopamine)

Researchers believe that glutamine could delay fatigue through a variety of mechanisms:

  • Glutamine is one of the most abundant glycogenic amino acids in humans and animals, which has a significant influence on Krebs cycle replenishment and gluconeogenesis through the activation of glycogen synthase
  • glutamine is considered to be a direct stimulant of glycogen synthesis
  • this amino acid is the major non-toxic carrier of ammonia, preventing the accumulation of this metabolite
  • Glutamine prevents muscle damage and is considered an indirect antioxidant by stimulating glutathione synthesis

The most important conclusions of the study:

  • Glutamine supplementation appears to increase muscle glycogen synthesis and reduce exercise-induced ammonia accumulation, especially when administered for long periods (more than 5 consecutive days). However, in terms of glycogen synthesis, more research is needed to demonstrate a greater effect of glutamine compared to carbohydrate or creatine monohydrate supplements.

  • Glutamine supplements appear to weaken markers of muscle damage, such as levels of CK (creatine kinase) in the blood and LDH ("bad" cholesterol).

  • These properties of glutamine are especially interesting for athletes who do strenuous and prolonged exercise.

  • Despite some improvements in fatigue, glutamine supplements appear to have limited effects on physical performance.

  • Supplements containing glutamine with many other nutrients appear to have ergogenic effects. However, it is not possible to attribute these properties to glutamine alone.

  • Finally, the L-alanyl-L-glutamine supplement (glutamine-alanine dipeptide) can be used as an alternative to increase glutamine availability. In addition, due to its high stability, this dipeptide is a suitable choice included in commercial products. Nevertheless, it is important to emphasize that more research is needed to support the anti-fatigue potential of glutamine supplements.

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